this complexity comes cost. A recent distributors one-off price I have for the
is £90.00, with the Am9512 at £111.38. (Both 2MHz devices.)
The Am9511 and Am9512 are basically the same processor, and the main
difference lies in the way that they are microcoded. The 9511 offers 16-bit
and 32-bit integer arithmetic, 32-bit floating point arithmetic, and a variety
of derived floating point functions (sine, cos, log etc). The 9512 handles
floating point numbers only, and lacks the transcendental functions of the
9511, only offering the four basic functions of + – * /. However the floating
point numbers can be either single precision (32-bit), or double precision
(64-bit), and all calculations are performed to the proposed IEEE floating
point standard . (I believe that after fitting that lot in to the
Am9512, there was no room left for the microcode to handle the other
Anyway, all this preamble leads into the review of the Belectra
Arithmetic Processor board. This 80-BUS board is based on the Am9511A
arithmetic processor, and before we launch into the actual review, a summary
of the 9511s instruction set can be found in table 1 for those of you who have
never met the device.
NOTE: The 9511 is a stack orientated processor. Operands are first pushed onto
the internal stack, and then a command is issued to the processor. TOS stands
for Top-Of-Stack, and NOS for Next-On-Stack. The 9511 runs from a 2MHz clock,
(but there are more expensive versions at 3MHz – £123.75 and 4MHz – £146.25),
and the variation of execution times demonstrates the data dependency of the
The Belectra HSA-88B
What you get:
Submitted for this review was:
1 8x3 pcb with 6 ICs on it.
1 7-page manual + AMD Am9511A data sheet.
1 Hisoft Pascal Manual + 1 disc.
The 8x3 pcb contains just 6 ICs, including the maths processor. I give
Belectra full marks for showing restraint over the board, because it is so
easy to look at all the spare space available on an 8x8 card, and to start
adding CTCs, PIOs, real-time clocks etc, and before you know it the price of
the board has gone up by more than £50 for features that most people could do
without. Cosmetically the review card differs from the usual 80-BUS standard.
Due to the relative simplicity of the circuit, Belectra have opted to produce
a single-sided board. As a result there are about two dozen links on the top
of the board. It is silk-screened, but there is no solder resist. The overall
colour is blue, and it is fitted with a handle to ease extraction. (Mind you
appearance isn’t everything, people buy the Ford Sierra and I once owned a
The board occupies two I/O ports, which can be selected (via straps) to
be 80/81H, 90/91H,....F0/F1H. The board came already strapped for 80/81H. The
Pascal worked with it at this address, and no indication is given of
how to patch the HP5 compiler to support any of the alternative addresses. No
circuit diagram is supplied, but the manual does state that DBDR is not
implemented, making the card incompatible with Nascom 1s.