Both manuals dive formal definitions of the syntax of the Pascal the compilers
will’ accert. Hisoft use these syntax diagrams with one way arrows to show vou
what can go wheres while Compas have done a very careful Job of writing out a
full Backus Naur definition of the landuade. In case vou are not familiar with
BNF, it tends to look like thist-
(program) £22 (rrogram heacling> <black> .
Cprodram heading) i:= (empty) | PROGRAM <file and so on and so on...
I’find syntax diagrams a million times easier ta ready even though they are not
as rleasincg to the mathematical minds and I believe they are a better wav of
doing things. You may disagrees if vou are fond of mathematical formalism for
its own saker rather than where it is useful. Both comeilers come complete with
exame le programs. The ones Hisoft dive vou are printed in the manualry so vou
have to tyre them in for vourselfs if vou want to use them. One of thems which
is surprosec to be able to read a CP/M disc directory into memorv:r doean’t work
with my CP/M: although I am told it dees with others. Comeas’s examrles are
already on the discs so all vou have to do is compile them and run them. Thev
are very nice examples, too. One of them is a calculator erodram: which makes
your expensive Nascom Cor similar] werk Just like a £5 pocket calculator.
Another is a tuite useful address and telerhone number file handling prodram,
and there is alse one that can do hex dumes of files from disc.
The precision of real number calculations is not the same in both systems.
Hiseft gives veu seven significant fissures, while Comreas gives vou eleven. Of
course, if vou need even more erecise fisures than that, you can Program your
way round the restriction with either compilery as I mentioned in a Previous
article. Thev both use two bytes to store an intesersy which dives vou the usual
“32748 to 32767 range of values. Compas doesn’t tell vou if an integer variable
has overflowed, whereas Hisoft does, unless vou set a comeiler orticn to omit
overflow checks. This would make the eregram run fasters but I usually forget
to do ity and I have no complaints about the seeed Hiseft programs run at! With
Compas, vou have to set a compiler cetion if vou want to use recursion. I used
to think using recursion was .iust showing off, until I needed it once or twice.
Compas has a data tyre that is net used in standard Pascalr or Hisoft for that
matters and it is the string. Nermaliv,s in FPascals ene uses arrays of
characters, and writes routines to manirulate them. It can be deanery although I
never finished the set of routines I was working on a while aga. The lack of
strings in Pascal is a real downer. Compas strings are very much like BASIC
strings, although the way it cheers strings up Ceauivalent to left$» right$, and
mid$J] uses a notation like that of the reculiar BASIC in the Sinclair ZX61.
Still» it is theres and strings can be cut up, concatenated and senerally
messed around as much as You like.
Extensions to Pascal.
Both comeilers dive vou direct access to the contents of memory, Compas dees it
by means. of what they call “the memory array”, which behaves much like an
ordinary Pascal array, whose contents are the 780’. address space. Hisoft have
addect the words FEEK and FPOKE to the landuades but these are net the single
byte orerations users of non structured BASIC know and love. If vou poke an
address with a data tyre that takes more than one byter all the bytes of the
source item are poked into successive memory, locations. In other words»
POKEC EFGQA+’Heaclind’ > would put the werd “Heading on the tor line of the
screen. This is very useful!
The Z8@ ports can also be accessed using either compiler. Hisoft have the
reserved words IN and OUT, while Comeas uses another of its srecial arrays
which is referred to as the Fort array.