INMC 80 News

  

May-September 1981, Issue 4











Page 51 of 71











BLINKING ASTERISKS MACRO-80 3.35 Page 1 Title BLINKING ASTERISKS

-Comment \

Author D. R. Hunt Date 01/05/81 Purpose To blink an asterisk on and off the screen at a rate determined by the contents of the B register. \ ORG ODOOH 0038 RDEL EQU 00384 O9E2 SCREEN EQU 09E2H op00 21 O9E2 LD HL, SCREEN 3; Set HL to point to screen 0D03 36 2A LOOPL: LD (HL),"*" 3 Put an ***% at (HL) OD05 cD ODOF CALL DELAY 0D08 36 20 LD (HL)," " 5 Put a ‘space’ at (HL) ODOA cD ODOF CALL DELAY opoD 18 F4 JR LOOPL ODOF 06 C8 DELAY: LD B,200 5; Prime the delay counter ODI1 FF LOOP2: RST RDEL 3; Call the delay in monitor 0D12 10 FD DINZ LOOP2 ODI4 cg RET END

No Fatal error(s)

Now, I’ve cheated, I don’t intend to repeat the mistake I made in part 3, so I’ve used an assembler. Now it’s not one of the ones you can buy for a normal Nascom, it’s disk based, and has some special features. The only reason I’ve used it instead of my ZEAP, is that my Nascom is all set up for disks, and unlike Mr. Bowden (issue 3 page 27), my Nascom is not multi-mapped, and it’s one hell of a hassle to set it all up for ordinary NAS-SYS working. So I must explain some of the differences as well as give a brief run down on assemblers in general.

So, an assembler is a program, it takes the mnemonics you feed it, and turns them into the appropriate machine codes. Same as looking the codes up in the book, but faster. Assemblers can be very very fast, (some are just fast), and will beat writing it all down on your Woolies Jumbo pad any time. They have one major advantage over doing it by hand, (apart from speed). Lets suppose we wanted to add one extra line right in the middle of a program, all the absolute jumps and all the calls after the insertion would have to be changed, because all the absolute addresses would have been moved up by the insertion. In a large program these might run into a hundred or more. It’s a mind bending chore doing it by hand (although all of us who had Nascoms before the assemblers came along, managed it). Now, see the advantage of labels for calls and jumps, you see, until it’s time to actually assemble the program these aren’t absolute addresses, they are just locations -- well -- er, labeled. Do you see what I am getting at? Inserting the odd line here and there doesn’t change the label, it simply changes its final location at assembly time. Everything is referenced to the labels, not absolutes, so insertions (or deletions) don’t matter.


This is an OCR’d version of the scanned page and likely contains recognition errors.











Page 51 of 71